Alexander Calder was born in 1898 in, Lawnton, Pennsylvania, and died in 1976 in New York. He created mobiles (a type of moving sculpture made with delicately balanced or suspended shapes that move in response to touch or air currents) that transformed the way sculpture was conceived at the time, and opened many possibilities, a whole new way to experience sculpture. Calder's most representative works are altering the age-old principles of sculpture, moving away from stillness towards movement, turning its traditional position in space around. The suspended mobile shapes are lightweight, and the visual effect they produce comes from the combination of planes of colour and movement. Working not only with color and steel, but experimenting with scale and adding music, choreography and a playful atmosphere to his creations caused a dramatic change in the way people interacted and interacts nowadays with art. Calder's monumental stationary sculptures are called stabiles. He also produced wire figures, which are like drawings made in space (three dimensional), and notably the miniature circus work that was performed by the artist.
Calder had a background in engineering, but soon focuses in the art creation, attending art school in New York and Paris. Calder's public commissions are on view in cities all over the world and his work has been the subject of numerous museum exhibitions, including the National Gallery of Art, Washington, D.C. (1998, traveled to San Francisco Museum of Modern Art, California); The Phillips Collection, Washington, D.C. (1998–99); Wadsworth Atheneum Museum of Art, Hartford (2000); Museum of Contemporary Art, Chicago (2000); Iwaki City Art Museum, Japan (2000, traveled to The Museum of Modern Art, Japan; Hokkaido Obihiro Museum of Art, Japan; The Museum of Art, Japan; Hiroshima Prefectural Art Museum, Japan; Nagoya City Art Museum, Japan); Storm King Art Center, New York (2001–03); Guggenheim Museum, Bilbao (2003, traveled to Museo Nacional Centro de Arte Reina Sofía, Madrid, through 2004); Foundation Beyeler, Switzerland (2004, traveled to Phillips Collection, Washington, D.C., through 2005); Los Angeles County Museum of Art, California (2013); Rijksmuseum, Amsterdam (2014); Fondation Beyeler, Basel (2014); Museo Jumex, Mexico City (2015); Pulitzer Arts Foundation, Saint Louis (2015) and Tate Modern, United Kingdom (2016).
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